Mind Body Seminar: Oct./Nov. 1977
ANCIENT & MODERN
THE INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE
MENTAL HEALTH CONTINUING EDUCATION CONSORTIUM
Boston University—McLean Hospital—Tufts Medical School
October 29-30, 1977
Copley Plaza Hotel, Boston
Contemporary Western medicine has specialized in the technical management of disease while for the most part ignoring the phenomenon of healing. The healing systems of other cultures and other times are most often dismissed as archaic nonsense or historical curiosities of little relevance to modern health care. However, a new willingness is emerging within the health field to reconsider some of the ancient systems of healing in light of contemporary science and present-day health needs. An open-minded, yet critical examination of such traditional systems as Navaho medicine, Yoga, or Puerto Rican Spiritism as well as the newer research on biofeedback, hypnosis, faith healing and the laying-on of hands reveals that we have radically underestimated human capacities for healing. This symposium is an attempt to integrate the technical achievements of modern medicine with the humanistic and psychosocial specializations of ancient systems of healing. The promise is for a more complete and holistic approach to health.
THEODORE X. BARBER, Ph.D., is Director of Psychological Research at the Medfield Foundation and State Hospital in Medfield, Massachusetts. He has published more than 160 research papers on hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, and pain control and is editor of BIOFEEDBACK AND SELF-CONTROL ANNUAL and ADVANCES IN ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND HUMAN POTENTIALITIES. He is also author of several books including HYPNOSIS: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH and LSD, MARIJUANA, YOGA, AND HYPNOSIS.
RENE DUBOS, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Biomedicine at the Rockefeller University. His early research involved the development of anti-microbial drugs and more recently he has investigated the effects that environmental forces- physicochemical, biological, and social – exert on human life. Dr. Dubos is author of over twenty books including THE MIRAGE OF HEALTH, MAN ADAPTING, SO HUMAN AN ANIMAL, BEAST OR ANGEL: CHOICES THAT MAKE US HUMAN, and THE PROFESSOR, THE INSTITUTE AND DNA.
JEROME D. FRANK, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, is an eminent researcher and clinician in the field of psychotherapy. His major research interest has been the elucidation of the healing components shared by all methods of psychotherapy, about which he has written numerous research papers and a book, PERSUASION AND HEALING.
ALAN HARWOOD, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts Boston. Trained in social anthropology he has studied illness and healing in Tanzania and ethnic communities of New York City. His publications include WITCHCRAFT, SORCERY, AND SOCIAL CATEGORIES AMONG SAFWA and Rx: SPIRITIST AS NEEDED: A STUDY OF A PUERTO RICAN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH RESOURCE.
DOLORES KRIEGER, Ph.D., R.N., is Professor of Nursing at New York University. Her research on human field interactions includes the effect of Therapeutic Touch on hemoglobin and hematocrit values in sick persons. She has also developed a masters level course, “Frontiers of Nursing,” to teach the use of touch as a therapeutic modality for health professionals.
DONALD F. SANDNER, M.D., is a training analyst at the C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco and in private practice of psychiatry. Over the past ten summers he has done field studies with Navaho medicine men and has just completed a book on symbolic healing among the Navaho.
DAVID S. SOBEL, Program Director for The Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge, is a Fellow in the Health Policy Program arid is completing his medical training at the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco. He is editor of the forthcoming book, HEALTH & HEALING: ANCIENT AND MODERN.
Program Coordinators: David S. Sobel (ISHK) and Robert Rosenthal (Consortium)
Saturday, October 29
HEALING AND CURING: A SYSTEMS VIEW – David S. Sobel
Western scientific medicine is largely concerned with curing disease, that is, intervening with physical and chemical means to correct biological dysfunction, whereas many traditional systems of medicine focus more on healing the illness, that is, managing the personal and psychosocial responses to disease. A systems view of health and disease will be presented as a framework for integrating these complementary tasks of healing and curing.
NAVAHO INDIAN MEDICINE – Donald F. Sandner, M.D.
Among the Navaho people numerous medicine men are still practicing their traditional healing ceremonies, called chants or sings. The basic attitudes, beliefs and techniques of the medicine men will be described and illustrated with slides. Also the underlying principles of this complex symbolic healing system will be analyzed and evaluated in terms of their relevance for modern psychological medicine.
PUERTO RICAN SPIRITISM AS THERAPY – Alan Harwood, Ph.D.
In the Puerto Rican community spiritism functions not only as a religion but as a source of personal identity, a way of ordering interaction among neighbors and kin, and a form of psychotherapy. The system of diagnostics and therapeutics of spiritist therapy will be described and the implications for provision of health care and understanding the healing process will be explored.
VIS MEDICATRIX NATURAE: THE HEALING POWER OF NATURE – Rene Dubos, Ph.D.
The oldest healing forces known are those of the organism itself—the mechanisms of adaptation which have developed throughout biological and social evolution. Spontaneous recovery from traumatic experiences may simply involve a return to the original state through the operation of homeostatic mechanisms. More commonly, however, it involves lasting changes resulting from adaptive responses to the forces which disturbed the equilibrium. Self-healing can thus be a creative force in development.
Sunday, October 30
MIND/BODY RELATIONSHIPS IN HEALING – Jerome D. Frank, M.D., Ph.D.
Since the person is a psychobiological unit, mental states can profoundly affect bodily healing processes. An examination of the so-called miracle cures, psychic healing, paranormal and faith healing, the placebo effect, and the clinical studies on the relation of mood to recuperative capacity reveal powerful psychological forces which need to be investigated and applied more effectively in therapeutic relationships.
THERAPEUTIC TOUCH; ANCIENT HEALING IN MODERN DRESS – Dolores Krieger, Ph.D., R.N.
The laying-on of hands is a therapeutic practice which reaches far into the ancient history of many cultures and is still widely used. However, only recently have scientists begun to investigate the biological effects of this ancient method of healing. The current research on the laying-on of hands and its modern derivative Therapeutic Touch will be presented along with the implications for nursing and modern health care.
HYPNOSIS, BIOFEEDBACK AND YOGA – Theodore X. Barber, Ph.D.
Research in hypnosis, biofeedback and yoga converge on the conclusion that we markedly underestimate normal human capacities. Such capacities include heightened tolerance for pain, control of a wide variety of physiological functions, and alterations in human consciousness. The significance of such findings for under-standing mind-body interrelationships and the processes of healing will be explored and methods of extending human capacities for psychosomatic self-regulation discussed.
Rx SELF-CARE FOR HEALTH
THE INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE
NEW HUMAN SERVICES INSTITUTE
The Graduate School, City University of New York
THE OFFICE OF URBAN HEALTH AFFAIRS
New York University Medical Center
November 5-6, 1977
Hotel Roosevelt, New York City
BARBARA EHRENREICH, Ph.D., has been involved with health care and women’s health as a staff member of the Health Policy Advisory Center, a teacher at State University of New York at Old Westbury and as an author. She has co-authored WITCHES, MIDWIVES AND NURSES: A HISTORY OF WOMEN HEALERS, COMPLAINTS AND DISORDERS: THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF SICKNESS, and HEALTH EMPIRE: POWER, PROFITS AND POLITICS.
ALAN GARTNER, Ph.D., is Professor, Center For Advanced Study in Education, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York. He is also Co-Director of the New Human Services Institute, Publisher of SOCIAL POLICY MAGAZINE and author of several books including PREPARATION OF HUMAN SERVICE PROFESSIONALS and SELF-HELP IN THE HUMAN SERVICES.
ALFRED H. KATZ, D.S.W., is Professor, UCLA Schools of Public Health and Social Welfare. His research involves the structure and function of mutual aid groups and practical applications of self-care in health. He is co-author of THE STRENGTH IN US: SELF-HELP GROUPS IN THE MODERN WORLD and SELF-CARE.
LOWELL S. LEVIN, Ed.D., M.P.H., is Associate Professor of Public Health at Yale University School of Medicine. He has recently organized an information and resource center for research related to self-care and health education, has co-authored a book SELF-CARE: LAY INITIATIVES IN HEALTH and is preparing a book on an assessment of social iatrogenesis.
FRANK RIESSMAN, Ph.D., is Professor of Education, Queens College and Editor of SOCIAL POLICY MAGAZINE. He serves as Co-Director of the National Self-Help Clearinghouse and is author of several books including THE INTERCITY CHILD and SELF-HELP IN THE HUMAN SERVICES.
VICTOR W. SIDEL, M.D., is Professor and Chairman, Department of Social Medicine, Montefiore Hospital, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Among other activities he is currently participating in the training of community health coordinators in the Bronx. He has made several visits to China about which he has written a book, SERVE THE PEOPLE: OBSERVATIONS ON MEDICINE IN CHINA. He is also co-author of a forthcoming book titled A HEALTHY STATE: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE CRISIS IN U.S. MEDICAL CARE.
DAVID S. SOBEL, Program Director for the Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge, is a Fellow in the Health Policy Program and is completing his medical training at the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco. He is editor of the forthcoming book, HEALTH & HEALING: ANCIENT AND MODERN.
Program Coordinators: David S. Sobel (ISHK) and Alan Garner & Frank Risen (CUNY) and Alex Rosen (NYU)
Saturday, November 5
WHY SELF-CARE? – David S. Sobel
Recent changes in contemporary health problems have highlighted a striking paradox. Although we place our faith (and resources) in professional medical care, our health is largely determined by factors which operate outside the medical domain. A new strategy is required to address the current health problems-one which acknowledges the critical importance of individual lifestyle and behavior and equips individuals to become active agents in their own health care.
THE DIMENSIONS OF SELF-CARE – Lowell S. Levin, Ed.D., M.P.H.
Self-care is a process in which a lay person functions effectively on his or her own behalf in health promotion and disease prevention, detection, and treatment at the level of the primary health resource in the health care system. Self-care is a universal attribute of all cultures and has historically accounted for the vast proportion of all health care. The recent resurgence of interest and programs to enhance self-care skills as a substitute as well as supplement to professional health care raises critical medical, social, economic, and political issues.
THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF SELF-CARE: U.S. AND CHINA – Victor W. Sidel, M.D.
Self-care may become another form of “blaming the victim”, diverting attention from social, political, and economic sources of ill-health and, paradoxically, furthering the “medicalization” of personal and social life. The Chinese experience with self-reliance suggests that in a different context self-care can strengthen equity and community and place medicine in a role appropriately supportive of health and care.
PANEL AND DISCUSSION
with Alfred H. Katz, D.S.W.
SELF-CARE IN ACTION: PRACTICAL PROGRAMS
Mini-presentations of selected self-care projects
Medical Self-Care Skills
Self-Care for the Elderly
Teaching Medical Self-Help
Self-Reliance in China
Self-Care for Children
Self-Care for Chronic Disease
Research on Self-Care
Sunday, November 6
SELF-HELP AND MUTUAL AID GROUPS – Alan Gartner, Ph.D.
Self-help groups are small, voluntary, member controlled groups whose members share common life experiences and problems and offer mutual assistance and support, it is estimated that there are over one-half million such groups in the United States ranging from Reach to Recovery, Mended Hearts, The Stroke Club to Alcoholics Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous and Recovery Inc. These groups often provide health services not available from professionals.
HOW DOES SELF-HELP WORK? – Frank Riessman, Ph.D.
Self-help relationships are organized differently from professional client relationships. The emphasis is on being helped by helping others and the consumer rather than the professional becomes the central figure. The effectiveness and mechanisms of self-help will be discussed and illustrated.
THE WOMEN’S HEALTH MOVEMENT – Barbara Ehrenreich, Ph.D.
Women’s self-help groups offer a challenge and alternative to modern, high-technology medical care and the medical model. The origins, aims, and practices of the women’s health movement emphasize lay control, demystification, shared expertise, social support systems, and socio-political change. The feminist critique of modern medicine has major implications both for public policy in health and grass-roots self-help efforts.
With speakers and invited representatives of various self-help groups
Women’s Self-Help Groups
Mental Health Self-Help Groups
Self-Help for the Elderly
Self-Help for Chronic Disease and Cancer
Self-Help for Smoking, Overeating, and Alcoholism
Professionals’ Role in Self-Help
How to Organize a Self-Help Group